Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Notes on Afghanistan - Study Material for EFLU 2021 and JNUEE Preparation


1- The Official Name

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

2- Capital City


3- Area 


4- Official Language

Afghan Persian

5- Type of Government

Unitary Presidential Islamic Republic

6- Legislature

National Assembly

7- Lower House 

House of the People (Wolesi Jigra)

8- Upper House 

House of the elders (Wolesi Jerga)

9- Currency


10- Time Zone 


11- Population

3.22 Crore

12- President

Ashraf Ghani

13- CEO

Abdullah Abdullah

14- Hotak Empire 

21st April 1709 by (Mirwais Hotak)

15- Recognised as State

19th August 1909 also known as the Treaty of Rawalpindi

16- Country Calling Code


17- Ethnic Group

1-Pashtun   2-Tajik   3-Hazara

4-Uzbek      5-Aim    6-Baloch

Note:- Hazaras claim to be descended from Genghis Khan's Mongolian soldiers.

        :- Afghanistan is situated in the South-West of  Asia.

        :- Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in Afghanistan.

    Medieval Afghanistan

    • NORTH - Khanate of Bukhara.
    • WEST    - Safavids of Iran.
    • EAST     - Sunni Mughals

 Description of Flag.

Afghanistan Flag on Cloth

  • The national flag of Afghanistan consists of three vertical bands of black, red, and green with the classical national emblem in the center.
  • The current flag was adopted on Aug 19, 2013.
  • Since the establishment of the Hotak dynasty in 1709, Afghanistan has had 25 flags.


  • Ahmad Shah Durrani established the Afghan state in 1747.
  • In 1761, he defeated the Maratha Empire at the Third Battle of Panipat.
  • In 1526, Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi fought the first battle of Panipat.
  • The second battle of Panipat was fought between hemu and Akbar in 1556.
  • On 30th March 1885, the British and Russian empires collided for control over Afghanistan. Also known as the Panjdeh Incident or the Battle of Kushka.
  • The First Anglo-Afghan war was fought between the British empire and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839-1842.
  • The second Anglo-Afghan war took place between 1878-1880.
  • The third Anglo-Afghan war took place in 1919 between British India and the Emirate of Afghanistan.
  • Amir Abdul Rahman is known for uniting the country and negotiating the Durand line.
  • Durand Line refers to the international land border between Afghanistan and Pakistan spanning 2670 km.
  • Durand line was established in 1893 by Mortimer Durand and Abdul Rehman Khan.
  • The Kingdom of Afghanistan was established in 1926.
  • The last king of Afghanistan was the Mohammad Zahir Shah.
  • In 1973, Monarchy was ended in Afghanistan.
  • Mohammad Daud khan was the First former Prime minister and President of Afghanistan and was given the title '' Father of the Nation ''
  • Daud Khan's rule was overthrown in 1978 by a military coup known as the Saur Revolution.
  • In Sept. 1996, Taliban Afghanistan became the Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan, a totalitarian Islamic state.
  • On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda hijacked US planes in Afghanistan.
  • Al-Qaeda's leader in 2011 was Osama bin Laden.
  • Navy seal forces killed Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
  • Al-Qaeda is currently led by Ayman Al-Zawahiri.
  • The Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly) was set up to build democratic structures in Afghanistan.
  • The 1964 constitution of Afghanistan transformed Afghanistan into a modern Afghanistan.
  • War begin in Afghanistan om 7th Oct 2001 to Till Now.
  • The current constitution was adopted on 26th January 2004.
  • Hamid Karzai is the President of Afghanistan from 2001-2014.


  • In the Indo-European family, Pashto belongs to the eastern Iranian group.
  • The word is known as 'Afghani' in Persian literature and as 'Pathani' in Hindustani literature.
  • Pahto is the second-largest regional language in Pakistan and is spoken mostly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan.
  • Bayazid Pir Roshan from Waziristan invented the Roshni script to write Pashto in the 16th century.
  • Pashto had 41 letters.
  • Pashto is written in Arabic Naskh.
  • Afghanistan's official language is Dari, a form of Persian.
  • During middle Persian, Dari was the court language of the Sassanids. 


  • The flag consist of a vertical tricolour with the national emblem in the centre of the flag.
  • The three colors of the flag are black, red, and green.
  • This flag was adopted on August 19, 2013.
  • It is which has a depiction of its flag within the flag itself. one of the six national flags in the          world 
  • It is also the only flag with a building on it out of five.


  •  It is a central Asian country.
  •  Hindu Kush mountain range passes through Afghanistan from Northeast to Southwest. Kushan,   Salang, and Khyber passes are included.
  •  The Khyber pass is a mountain pass in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, on the   Afghan border.It was an integral part of the ancient silk road.Khyber pass is the border crossing   at Torkham.
  •  The desert of Registan is very sparsely populated by Baluchi and Pasting nomads. 
  •  Noshaq, is the highest peak in the Hindu Kush range. 7492 meters is the height of the peak.
  •  Wakhan Corridor is a narrow strip of territory in Afghanistan that extends to China and     separating Tajikistan from Pakistan and Kashmir.
  •  Afghanistan is closest to the Tropic of Cancer.
  •  Afghanistan's longest river is the Helmand.
  • The Kajaki dam is located in the Helmand River and is the largest dam in Afghanistan. The plant produces 52 MW of electricity.
  • About 12% of Afghan women are literate.
  • Only 12% of the land is Arable (Means Fertile for farming) in Afghanistan.

NOTE:~ Kabahar port is a major seaport for Indian exports to Afghanistan.It is situated in southeastern Iran.


  • Afghanistan shares a western border with Iran
  • It has a land border with Six Countries.
  • It has the longest land border with Pakistan (2670km) and the smallest with China (91km).
  • Afghanistan is the only Asian country bordering China.
  • Kabul and Khandahar are the two largest cities in Afghanistan.


  1. It is located in a narrow valley between Hindu Kush mountain.
  2. In 1776, during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, it became the capital of Afghanistan.
  3. Initially, it was a center of learning for Zoroastrianism, then Buddhism.
  4. Babar Nama refers to Kabul as Kabulistan.
  5. Kabul's Hamid Karzai international airport is a major airport.
  6. Darul Aman Palace and Tajbeg Palace is the main Building in Kabul. 


  1. Mirwais Hotak made Khandahar the capital of the Hotak Dynasty in 1709.
  2. In 1747, Ahmad shah Durrani made khandahar the capital of the Afghan Empire.
  3. It is a major centre for Ethnic Group Pashtun.
  4. The founder of Old Khandahar was Alexander the Great and named it Alexandria in Archosia. 
      ~ HERAT and MAZAE-E-ISHQ are the important cities in Afghanistan.


   ~  'Kabuli Palaw' is the main dish of Afghanistan.
   ~ Aush is a handmade noodle.
   ~ Shorba is an Afghan soup.
   ~ Sheer khurma is a traditional dessert.


  1. FEB 15: Liberation Day
    1. MARCH 21: New Year's Day
    2. APRIL 28: Mujahideen victory day
    3. 19 AUG: Independence Day


     1. Buddha's of Bamyan: It is a Monument of Gautam Buddha in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region.

    2. Minaret of Jam: This monument was located in Shahrak district with a height of 45m.


    1. In the caves of Bamyan, the first oil paintings were drawn.
    2. Arab Muslims during ancient to, es were called as 'AL- HIND'
    3. Before Islam, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism were dominant religions.
    4. Soviet forces occupied Afghanistan between 25 Dec (1979) and 15 Feb (1989).
    5. Afghanistan is the same size as Texas in the US.
    6. The Salma Dam is also known as the Afghan-Indian friendship dam.

    ‌       1. NATIONAL GAME           - Buzkashi.

    ‌       2. NATIONAL ANIMAL       - Snow Leopard.

    ‌       3. NATIONAL BIRD             - Golden Eagle.

    ‌       4. NATIONAL FLOWER      - Tulip.

    ‌       5. NATIONAL TREE            - Afghan Pine.

    ‌       6. NATIONAL FRUIT           - The Peach.

    ‌       7. NATIONAL RIVER           - Kabul.


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